, Stalin's native Caucasus posed a particular problem because of its highly multi-ethnic mix.  He publicly lambasted the "pogroms against Jews and Armenians" as being part of Tsar Nicholas II's attempts to "buttress his despicable throne".  In Baku he had reassembled his gang, the Outfit, which continued to attack Black Hundreds and raised finances by running protection rackets, counterfeiting currency, and carrying out robberies. , In 1948, Stalin edited and rewrote sections of Falsifiers of History, published as a series of Pravda articles in February 1948 and then in book form.  The first Moscow Trial took place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and executed.  In his words, "the people need a Tsar, whom they can worship and for whom they can live and work". , History of the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist party, Invasion of Georgia and General Secretary, Harrison S.Salisbury,"Russia in Revolution 1900-1930", 1978, Swedish, Salisbury, p.266-269 (the book has numerous illustrations.  He befriended two military figures, Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny, who would form the nucleus of his military and political support base.  Wheatcoft and historian R. W. Davies estimate famine deaths at 5.5–6.5 million while scholar Steven Rosefielde gives a number of 8.7 million. On December 19, the Central Committee dismissed Rykov and replaced him with Molotov.. And so naturally, after Lenin's death, he supported the moustachioed one in the internal party power struggle that ensued. , Within the Soviet Union, there was widespread civic disgruntlement against Stalin's government.  He was a hard worker, and displayed a keen desire to learn; when in power, he scrutinised many details of Soviet life, from film scripts to architectural plans and military hardware.  Stalin felt disgraced and increased his antipathy toward Trotsky.  Service suggested that the country might have collapsed long before 1991 without Stalin.  Another influential text was Alexander Kazbegi's The Patricide, with Stalin adopting the nickname "Koba" from that of the book's bandit protagonist. A very detailed timeline of the period known as Stalin's Russia 1924 - 1953 which explains how Stalin took over from Lenin and consolodated his position  In September 1934, he launched a commission to investigate false imprisonments; that same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan.  An autodidact, he claimed to read as many as 500 pages a day, with Montefiore regarding him as an intellectual.  Stalin exploited Nazi anti-Semitism, and in April 1942 he sponsored the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) to garner Jewish and foreign support for the Soviet war effort.  After Bukharin's departure, Stalin placed the Communist International under the administration of Dmitry Manuilsky and Osip Piatnitsky.  Other important supporters on the Politburo were Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, and Sergo Ordzhonikidze, with Stalin ensuring his allies ran the various state institutions.  Stalin believed this would encourage independence sentiment among non-Russians, instead arguing that ethnic minorities would be content as "autonomous republics" within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Lenin criticised Stalin's rude manners, excessive power, ambition and politics, and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary.  According to historian James Harris, contemporary archival research shows that the motivation behind the purges was not Stalin attempting to establish his own personal dictatorship; evidence suggests he was committed to building the socialist state envisioned by Lenin.  Yezhov was arrested in April 1939 and executed in 1940. It’s an unfortunate fact that Stalin and Hitler were ordinary human beings, it’s important to remember this and realise what human beings are capable of. To this point, Stalin was a Bolshevik functionary rather than a political or intellectual leader.  Twenty six countries officially recognise it under the legal definition of genocide.  They arrived in Krasnoyarsk in February 1917, where a medical examiner ruled Stalin unfit for military service because of his crippled arm.  In Lenin's absence, Stalin continued editing Pravda and served as acting leader of the Bolsheviks, overseeing the party's Sixth Congress, which was held covertly.  Although concealing his desires from the other Allied leaders, Stalin placed great emphasis on capturing Berlin first, believing that this would enable him to bring more of Europe under long-term Soviet control. , In October 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong took power in China. , A vast literature devoted to Stalin has been produced.  Service also noted that Stalin "would never be Russian", could not credibly pass as one, and never tried to pretend that he was. The Provisional Government under Alexander Kerensky was becoming unpopular despite ending the rule of the Romanov’s.  In a celebratory mood, Stalin travelled by train to Petrograd in March.  Amid the fighting, both the German and Soviet armies disregarded the law of war set forth in the Geneva Conventions; the Soviets heavily publicised Nazi massacres of communists, Jews, and Romani. At the 11th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), leaders decided to expand the party's Central Committee.  He was supported in this by Bukharin, who like Stalin believed that the Left Opposition's proposals would plunge the Soviet Union into instability.  In March 1910, he was arrested again and sent back to Solvychegodsk. While Trotsky remained firm in his opposition to Stalin after his expulsion from the Communist Party and his subsequent exile, Zinoviev and Kamenev capitulated almost immediately and called on their supporters to follow suit.  Stalin faced several severe health problems: An 1884 smallpox infection left him with facial scars; and at age 12 he was seriously injured when he was hit by a phaeton, likely the cause of a lifelong disability in his left arm. , In the post-war period there were often food shortages in Soviet cities, and the USSR experienced a major famine from 1946 to 1947.  This gained widespread acceptance outside the Soviet Union during his lifetime but was misleading.  Stalin also agreed to supervise the Department of Agitation and Propaganda in the Central Committee Secretariat.  There, he lived in a two-room peasant's house, sleeping in the building's larder.  Trotsky was first removed as Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs (January 1925), removed from the Politburo (October 1926), removed from the Central Committee (October 1927), expelled from the Communist Party (November 1927), exiled to Alma–Ata in Kazakhstan (January 1928), and exiled from the Soviet Union (February 1929).  There, he offered advice on their ideas; for instance he cautioned against the Yugoslav idea for a Balkan federation incorporating Bulgaria and Albania. , On 26 October 1917, Lenin declared himself chairman of a new government, the Council of People's Commissars ("Sovnarkom").  Stalin barred kulaks from joining these collectives.  Stalin's necessity for Soviet Union's economic development has been questioned, with it being argued that Stalin's policies from 1928 on may have only been a limiting factor. When the Bolsheviks managed to capture power in 1917, Stalin was released from prison to take up the post of Secretary General of the Central Committee in 1922. , The only part of the former Soviet Union where admiration for Stalin has remained consistently widespread is Georgia, although Georgian attitude has been very divided.  The treaty gave vast areas of land and resources to the Central Powers and angered many in Russia; the Left Socialist Revolutionaries withdrew from the coalition government over the issue.  Although Stalin did not share Lenin's belief that Europe's proletariat were on the verge of revolution, he acknowledged that as long as it stood alone, Soviet Russia remained vulnerable. Stalin Rise to power.  Social unrest, previously restricted largely to the countryside, was increasingly evident in urban areas, prompting Stalin to ease on some of his economic policies in 1932.  In 1956, Khrushchev gave his "Secret Speech", titled "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences", to a closed session of the Party's 20th Congress.  He enjoyed music, owning around 2,700 records, and frequently attending the Bolshoi Theatre during the 1930s and 1940s.  He was reprimanded by Lenin at the 8th Party Congress for employing tactics which resulted in far too many deaths of Red Army soldiers.  Beria has been suspected of murder, although no firm evidence has ever appeared.  In March 1914, concerned over a potential escape attempt, the authorities moved Stalin to the hamlet of Kureika on the edge of the Arctic Circle.  Lenin and Stalin argued on the issue of foreign trade; Lenin believed that the Soviet state should have a monopoly on foreign trade, but Stalin supported Grigori Sokolnikov's view that doing so was impractical at that stage. As joint commander of an army in Ukraine and later in Poland itself, Stalin's actions in the war were later criticized by many, including Leon Trotsky. Lenin called for establishment of a new federation named the "Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia", reflecting his desire for expansion across the two continents and insisted that the Russian state should join this union on equal terms with the other Soviet states.