Namely, whether another pest could take the place of the rabbits once they are gone. Background European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are invasive pest species in Australia, with rabbits having a substantially larger environmental impact than hares. RHD causes blood clots to develop in the rabbit's lungs, heart and kidneys. The rabbits are also developing resistance to the introduced calicivirus. compete with livestock and native animals for pasture and food. Rabbits were introduced to Australia with the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788. "Rabbits were introduced as part of a broad attempt by early colonists to make Australia as much like Europe as they possibly could," says Greg Mutze, research officer at the Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation in South Australia. Conventional controls include destroying rabbit burrows with poison and fire. Image Credit: David Peacock From the spring issue of The Wildlife Professional. Currently, rabbits inhabit around 4 million square kilometres of Australia, stretching from southeast NSW to the WA wheatbelt. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA's agriculture and food sector. During this period they had a profound effect on Australia’s economy. To prevent the rabbits' westward spread, the WA government finished building three rabbit-proof fences across the state in 1907. First arriving in Australia with the First Fleet, then deliberately released for hunting in the 1800’s, the rate of spread of the rabbit in Australia was the fastest of any colonising mammal anywhere in the world. To combat the reduced effectiveness of myxoma virus, calicivirus, or rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), was released in Australia in 1995. Their ideal habitat consists of short grasslands with secure refuge (such as burrows, boulders, hedgerows, scrub, and woodland) near feeding areas. In WA, they are declared pests of agriculture in both their, Email Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS), Why rabbits have succeeded in Western Australia, Rabbit control in urban and semi-urban areas, Rabbit fencing to protect crops and pasture, Code of practice for keeping rabbits in Western Australia, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. Future. Such wild rabbit populations are a serious mammalian pest and invasive species in Australia causing millions of dollars’ worth of damage to crops. Myxomatosis, the disease caused by the Myxoma virus, occurs naturally in South American cottontail rabbits. The story goes that a land… By the 1920s, Australia's rabbit population had swelled to 10 billion. In 2000, researchers in Italy reported the discovery of a new and virulent strain of the calicivirus. Rabbits have set up shop in Australia since the late 18th century, when the First Fleet — 11 ships carrying convicts that founded the first European settlement in Australia — brought them along for food in 1788. Rabbit plagues in Australia have occurred several times throughout parts of Australia since wild European rabbits were introduced by European colonists. Faced with a bunny explosion across the country, scientists are urgently looking for solutions to eradicate this ecological nightmare. Get ABC Science’s weekly newsletter Science Updates, Pest Management
While increased rabbit sighting tells us that rabbit numbers are on the rise, scientists don't know the precise numbers. It has since spread across Europe, the United States, Cuba and Uruguay. "In a lot of cases, the vegetation community had completely changed to what are essentially grazing lawns," says Lucieer. The last Ice Age confined the species to the Iberian peninsula and small areas of France and northwest Africa, but due to human action and adaptability of this species, European rabbits today exist in the wild on every continent except Asia and Antarctica. Early introductions of European rabbits into Australia were domestic breeds that were unable to survive in the wild. Wikipedia "Local authorities will get together and report: yes we've got rabbits, no we don't," says Peacock. Australia is being hit by a bunny invasion and these marauders aren't the chocolate kind. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. Unfortunately, they would soon spread across the country. Rabbits have a well-documented history for causing severe environmental damage. Since the release of the Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) the estimate for agricultural production loss is approximately $206 million annually, with an additional $25 million spent annually on management and research costs. "It is much easier to hold rabbit numbers down than to get them down again after rabbits have been re-established," says Mutze. Rabbits are found in different places around the world and can survive most types of climates, but they are not native in Antarctica. The increased rabbit population has also had a devastating impact on the island's native vegetation. "[The native calcivirus is] non-pathological so it doesn't kill them, but it's very similar to calicivirus. In 1950 a virus that causes a mild illness called myxomytosis in Brazilian rabbits was found to be lethal in European rabbits. Rabbits were found in South Australia and Queensland by 1886 and by 1890 were in eastern parts of Western Australia and the Northern Territory in the 1900s. More recently this species has been introduced to oceanic islands throughout the world, parts of Chile and Argentina, and also New Zealand and Australia, where it thrives. Feral rabbit control is complicated because of welfare and harvesting issues, and because both native and introduced predators feed on feral rabbits in many parts of Australia. During this period they had a profound effect on Australia’s economy. Tags: endangered-and-protected-species, pest-management, ecology, genetics, mammals. Here, rabbit numbers have swelled from under 20,000 to 130,000 in only six years, and have eaten much of the native bushland. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or coney is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe (including Portugal, Spain and western France) and to northwest Africa (including Morocco and Algeria). (Source: RabbitScan/IACRC). They may look cute and cuddly but rabbits have been a persistent pest in Australia for 150 years. However, with the virus spread by mosquitoes, fatality rates varied across the country. Gardeners and growers everywhere, watch your lettuce patches! While increased rabbit sightings tell us that numbers are on the rise, accurate estimates of Australia's rabbit population today are difficult to make because there is no national reporting and mapping system. Wild rabbits are said to have been first domesticated in the 5th Century by the monks of the Champagne Region in France. They have adapted to Australia's diverse environments, establishing themselves in farmland, deserts, grasslands and wet coastal plains, and causing havoc to native flora and fauna. Rabbits have been spotted in rising numbers in the Atherton tablelands in far north Queensland, and the Northern Rivers region in New South Wales. Males are … Introduction of European Rabbits to Australia In 1859, European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were introduced into the Australian wild so that they could be hunted. They are scarce in areas with clay soils and abundant where soils are deep and sandy, such as in the north-east of South Australia. But the reporting grid varies between states. (Source: iStockphoto). A shortened version of the URL, helpful when communicating the URL over email or verbally. They inhabit heathland, grassland, woodland, open meadows and the edges of agricultural land. The accumulative benefit to Australia's pastoral industries of 60 years of myxoma and RHDV biocontrol is estimated at $70 billion. The European rabbit can be identified by long floppy ears, short tail, and long jumping gait. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. "It was hoped that they would flourish so that the owners could hunt them.". We suspect it is acting as a natural vaccine," says Strive. As we know, once bunnies start breeding, it's hard to make them stop. Rabbits became part of a colonist’s diet and farmers kept them trapped together with stone enclosures. Their spread may have been enhanced through the emergence of strong crossbreeds. Myxomatosis didn't stop Australia's rabbit problem as this photo taken near Adelaide in 1961 shows. In the 1900s the rabbit population exploded, and in 1968 the myxomatosis virus was released. "Most of the strains circulating now kill about 40 per cent of rabbits that are infected," says Mutze. European rabbits first arrived in Australia with the First Fleet in 1788, but they only became a pest after 24 wild rabbits were released for hunting near Geelong in Victoria 150 years ago. Page last updated: Monday, 17 October 2016 - 1:18pm. Once infected, the rabbits develop lesions filled with mucus. In 1886 rabbits were spotted in South Australia and Queensland, and by 1890 were hopping across eastern Western Australia. Unfortunately the fences were a flop because rabbits had already moved into the areas being fenced off. The virus' toxicity has also reduced over time. Various methods in the 20th century have been attempted to control the Australian rabbit population. To tackle this, the IACRC is making this coming May RabbitScan month. "You could compare [the island] to a golf course," says Dr Arko Lucieer from the University of Tasmania, co-author of a recent paper published in the Journal of Applied Ecology analysing the effect of the growing rabbit population on the island. The suitability of this strain as a new agent depends on whether it infects native fauna, and the ease with which it spreads across rabbit populations. Australia is an ideal location for the prolific rabbit. Use this form to email 'Australia's battle with the bunny' to someone you know:
Introduction European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) originated in Spain but they are now found throughout most of the temperate regions of Europe, North Africa, Chile and Australasia. Currently recording systems rely solely on individual reporting. By clicking 'Send to a friend' you agree ABC Online is not responsible for the content contained in your email message. In some areas 99 per cent of the rabbits were killed. Until the successful release of the myxoma virus, and the introduction of 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) poisoning programs in the 1950s, rabbit numbers remained essentially unchecked. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was first introduced to Australia by the First Fleet in 1788.They were bred as food animals, most likely in cages. "Rabbits are very good at finding the seedlings of shrubs when they are very small and grazing them out to the extent where the native shrubs are completely unable to regenerate," says Mutze. President of the Australian National Rabbit Council Mark Page said rabbit club numbers had halved and the hobby of showing rabbits competitively had all but collapsed since RHDV2 entered Australia. Hares are larger than rabbits and have longer legs and ears. However, like myxomatosis, its efficacy varied throughout Australia. European rabbits were introduced to Australia in the 18th century with the First Fleet and eventually became widespread. The European rabbit became widespread in North America and Australia, for example, where the wild rabbit has become a troublesome pest to farmers and conservationists. The mucus accumulates under the rabbit's skin, leading to internal swelling. After years of battling this pest, Australia is now facing a fresh increase in rabbit numbers. Journal of Applied Ecology. But, the population rapidly took off (they bred like rabbits), and within a few decades they had spread across the entire continent and numbered in the hundreds of millions. Now found nearly worldwide ... Population Responses to Sterility Imposed on Female European Rabbits. The European rabbit originally occupied the Iberian Peninsula and northwestern Africa, but it was widely introduced throughout western Europe 2,000 years ago. Feral rabbits can be found in many different habitats across Australia, ranging from deserts to coastal plains — wherever there is suitable soil for digging warrens. The European rabbit, found in southwestern Europe and Africa, stays in grasslands. Over three-quarters of the State is inhabited by feral European rabbits. Currently, rabbits inhabit around 4 million square kilometres of Australia, stretching from southeast NSW to the WA wheatbelt. They are now found in all states and territories, including several offshore islands. In large coniferous plantations, European rabbits only occur in peripheral areas and along fire breaks and rides. The rate at which bunnies breed doesn't help either; a single female rabbit is able to produce between 18 and 30 young per year. news and features web feed, The 'underground astronaut' in search of ancient bones, Voyager probes still signalling from the edge of the Solar System, Solar eclipses: Everything you need to know, Five ways your smartphone could help save lives, The buffalo fly trap: clean, green and pesticide-free. Most rabbits die of haemorrhage and seizures within 10 days. "There will always be a coevolution between the virus and the host, so biological controls will never be enough on their own," says Strive. The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. "The combination of the [reduced efficacy of the] myxomatosis virus and the absence of cats meant that the rabbit population started to expand after 2000," says University of Tasmania researcher Lucieer. Rabbits are one of the most common and widespread animal pests in Australia. Rabbits can be differentiated from hares by a size differences. The virus was promptly released into the wild in Australia and effectively spread like wildfire through mosquito and rabbit flea bites, and killed all but 0.2% of the rabbits. Native Austrostipa grass recovers in semi-arid Flinders Ranges National Park in South Australia in an area where huge rabbit warrens were mechanically destroyed after rabbit hemorrhagic disease arrived in late 1995 and decimated the region’s rabbits. The majority of Australian rabbits are descended from 24 wild rabbits released near Geelong in 1859. They have adapted to Australia's diverse environments, establishing themselves in farmland, deserts, grasslands and wet coastal plains, and causing havoc to native flora and fauna. They are pests because they compete with livestock and native animals for pasture and food, damage crops and native vegetation, and cause erosion. https://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/04/08/2538860.htm? Scientists from the IACRC will then use this data to assess rabbit activity across Australia. So in 1950 the biological control agent, Myxoma virus, was introduced to Australia's mainland. The virus reduced rabbit populations by 90 per cent in arid zones and held them down for around 10 years, says Mutze. Rabbits spread throughout Victoria and by 1880 had crossed into New South Wales. Rabbits also threaten some of our native burrowing animals, such as the bilby and the burrowing bettong, by moving into their existing burrows and competing for food. Thomas Austin, a wealthy settler who lived in Victoria, Australia, had 13 European wild rabbits sent to him from across the world, which he … Wild rabbits were introduced to Australia in the mid to late 1800s at places such as: Canning River (Western Australia) Kapunda (South Australia) Geelong (Victoria) Shoalhaven River (New South Wales) Woody Island (Queensland). They have been introducedto Australia, New Zealand and South America. Researchers are looking into new biological control agents, which could come from new viruses or more virulent strains of myxomatosis and calicivirus. This is partly because rabbits are developing genetic resistance to the virus, and the virus itself has changed and is not as virulent as the original strain. But for the more remote areas we will always have to rely on biological control," says Strive. In the first decades, they do not appear to have been numerous, judging from their absence from archaeological collections of … "Using poison, deep ploughing and then fuming burrows was highly cost effective [in] reducing rabbit numbers," says Mutze. "In some states these reports are documented on a five kilometre grid, while in other states it is a 50 kilometre grid," says Peacock. Currently, there are … In terms of specific approaches going forward, we need to practice 'integrated rabbit management' and use several different methods, says CSIRO researcher Strive. Rabbits are ground dwellers that live in environments ranging from desert to tropical forest and wetland.Their natural geographic range in the Western Hemisphere encompasses the middle latitudes. It causes severe damage to the natural environment and to agriculture. The species had spread throughout Victoria and by 1880 was found in New South Wales. The evolutionary future of rabbits will likely be as heavily influenced by humans as by nature. Any future rabbit removal strategy should take heed of the Macquarie Island experience and consider the wider implications on the environment, says Lucieer. Until the successful release of the myxoma virus, and the introduction of 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) poisoning programs in the 1950s, rabbit numbers remained essentially unchecked. The rabbits started to migrate across Australia at a rate of 80 miles a year. In WA, they are declared pests of agriculture in both their domestic and feral forms under the Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act 2007. The proliferation of rabbits was the fastest of an introduced mammal anywhere in the world. The European rabbit became widespread in North America and Australia, for example, where the wild rabbit has become a troublesome pest to farmers and conservationists. While identifying new suitable diseases is expensive (calcivirus research cost more than $20 million), the benefits are enormous: calicivirus has saved Australian agriculture over $1 billion in the past 13 years. (Parker, 1990; Wilson and Reeder, 1993) RHDV2: Found in Australia in May 2015, RHDV2 is a variant of RHDV that was not released but has been detected in Europe and now Australia and may cause deaths to European rabbits. Rabbits were established on at least one island off the coast of Western Australia (WA) in 1827 and may have been present on other islands earlier than this. European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) originated in Spain but they are now found throughout most of the temperate regions of Europe, North Africa, Chile and Australasia. Use these social-bookmarking links to share Australia's battle with the bunny. By 1890, rabbits were spotted all the way in Western Australia. "In some cases it's possible that we will find that calicivirus is not circulating in the population, so we can reinfect rabbits," explains Peacock. ii) Example: European rabbits were introduced to Australia as a source of food. Domesticated O. cuniculus may be found worldwide. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or coney  is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe (including Spain, Portugal and western France) and to northwest Africa (including Morocco and Algeria). The majority of Australian rabbits are descended from 24 wild rabbits released near Geelong in 1859. In the 1840s, rabbit-keeping was a common practice among colonists, with bunny rabbit thefts showing up in court records. About the fact sheet The feral European rabbit is one of the most widely distributed and abundant mammals in Australia. European rabbits can be found all over Europe, northwestern Africa, South America, New Zealand, United States, Australia and are just the main areas they reside in. In 1996 rabbits were estimated to cost the nation at least $600 million annually in lost agricultural production. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) is a highly contagious disease caused by a calicivirus that affects rabbits. Also, two years ago Dr Tanja Strive from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) discovered that Australian rabbits carry a native calicivirus that may confer some immunity to the disease. So are we any closer to eradicating this ecological nightmare? Volunteers are being asked to scan their landscape and mark areas where they have seen rabbits on an online map. European Rabbits are found throughout Europe and in north west Africa. 44: 291-301 •Zenger, K. R., Richardson, B. J. and Vachot-Griffin, A.-M. (2003), A rapid population expansion retains genetic diversity within European rabbits in Australia. And the sooner we introduce a new rabbit-killing virus, the better. Landholders are required to control rabbits on their properties. "This means ripping out the warrens and baiting if the land is accessible. In arid areas, where mosquitoes cannot survive, myxomatosis did not spread well. The latest battlefront is Macquarie Island, a subantarctic island halfway between Australia and Antarctica. As it is spread by flies, the virus had very little impact in cooler, high rainfall regions in coastal south eastern Australia where flies are less abundant. Initially, this project was successful and rabbit numbers reduced from 130,000 to 20,000 in the 1980s. "Rather than focusing on the one species we should research the whole ecosystem," says Lucieer. In 1859 European wild rabbits were introduced into Australia so they could be hunted for sport. However, they are not found in Southern South America, West Indies, Madagascar, and the majority of the islands Southeast of Asia. Cottontail and European rabbits are native in Australia and Eurasia, where hares are more common. "We don't have a reasonable rabbit map in Australia," says Professor Tony Peacock, chief executive officer of the Invasive Animals Co-operative Research Centre (IACRC). Within 50 years rabbits had spread across almost the entire continent, with devastating implications for Australia’s indigenous flora and fauna. Flourish they did. In 1996 rabbits were estimated to cost the nation at least $600 million annually in lost agricultural production. If RHDV2 is highly virulent it could potentially benefit rabbit biocontrol efforts within Australia 3 . It was common practice for early mariners to leave live rabbits on small islands as a food supply in case of shipwreck or future visits. Now, it is estimated that approximately 200 million feral rabbits inhabit Australia. But after a cat eradication program began in 1985, rabbit numbers have risen to 130,000 again. These cute little guys grow up to 55 cm long and have distinctive bob-tails and long ears. Image by Anne Young They soon spread all over Australia, except … Rabbits have a well-documented history for causing severe environmental damage. "RHD was first detected in China in 1984 and it spread through wild and domestic rabbits in Europe," says Mutze. Where they can, farmers should continue using conventional methods to remove rabbits from their land. Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review. Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS). However, conventional controls are labour intensive and time consuming and, faced with the rate at which rabbits breed, cannot hold down numbers on their own. The adult coats are typically gray-brown, but range from sandy color to black or dark gray. Rabbits were brought to the island in the late 1800s to provide food for shipwrecked sailors. Male (bucks) European rabbits weigh more and have broader heads than females (does), but the overall appearance of both sexes is v… By the 1920s, rabbits had colonised most of the southern half of Australia and were present in extremely high numbers over most of that area. European rabbits have been a pest in Australia for 150 years. Conventional and biological controls have been used in Australia to eradicate rabbits. The underside of the rabbits are completely white with all color variations. After destroying two million acres of Victoria's floral lands, they traversed across the states of New South Wales, South Australia, and Queensland. This includes wild and domesticated European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), from which our own domesticated rabbits are descended. By 1880 these animals had crossed the Murray River and by 1886, they “were found throughout that Victoria and New South Wales – even extending to the Northern Territory by the 1900s.” Their population rapidly grew to about 10 billion in 1920. Initially, myxomatosis caused enormous reductions in rabbit numbers. The clots block blood vessels and death from heart and respiratory failure quickly ensues.